Platform for African – European Partnership in Agricultural Research for Development

Friday, July 10, 2015

Our Common Future Under Climate Change

7-10 July 2015. Paris, France. This four-day Scientific Conference “Our Common Future under Climate Change” was the largest forum for the scientific community to come together ahead of the 21st UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP21), which will be hosted by France in December 2015 (“Paris Climat 2015”).

Building on the results of IPCC 5th Assessment Report (AR5), the
Conference addressed key issues concerning climate change in the broader context of global change. It offered an opportunity to discuss solutions for both mitigation and adaptation issues. The Conference also welcomed Side Events organized by different stakeholders.

The conference was organized under the umbrella of ICSU, Future Earth, UNESCO and major French research institutions, with the support of the French Government.

See also the only French version (not over-voiced in English)
See also the video records of the other plenary sessions

Published on 10 Jul 2015 (closing session)
Collective Action and Transformative Solutions

Chair: T. Ribera (Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, Paris, France)

Speakers: J. Stiglitz (Columbia University, Columbia, United States of America) ; S. Jasanoff (Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, United States of America) ; Y. Sokona (The South Centre, Geneva, Switzerland) ; L. Tubiana (Sciences Po, Paris, France), R. Kyte (World Bank, Washington D.C., United States of America) ; H.-J. Schellnhuber (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany) ; R. D. Holt (U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, United States of America)

9 July 2015. Dr. Cheikh Mbow, a senior scientist on climate change and development, was interviewed by AllAfrica on his research on an integrated approach to land management in Africa, where competition for resources between pastoral and agricultural communities often causes conflict. Dr. Mbow, of the World Agroforestry Centre in Nairobi, is also an associate professor of the Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar in Senegal. Excerpts from his replies:

His presentation [at the conference] was about the change in the paradigm of addressing risk in the African landscape. This risk is related to extreme climatic events, mostly connections between climate risk and other threats such as governance or institutional issues.

Narindra Rakotovao of the University of Antananarivo presented research on the introduction of "agro-ecological practices" among farmers in Central Madagascar - which have the effect of reducing carbon emissions on farms and improving productivity and people's livelihoods. In Central Madagascar there is an NGO whose objective is to diffuse agro-ecological practices to farmers, mainly with a system of rice intensification and the integration of trees into the cropping system.

Extracts of the programme:

Facing climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa
Facing climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa
The aim of this session was to review the state of knowledge on observed changes and foreseen perspectives, related to climate, environment and socio-economy, in this highly vulnerable region. It will cover (i) observed climate changes and related impacts, (ii) future climate change and (iii) impacts scenarios and adaptation options in a warmer climate.
  • Observatories, a Key Tool to Tackle Climate Changes in Tropical Regions
    T. Lebel (IRD, 38041 Grenoble Cedex, France), C. Peugeot (IRD, Montpellier, France), M. Grippa (Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France), S. Galle (IRD, 38041 Grenoble Cedex, France)
  • Climate Change Projections in the Sahel. The what and the why
    M. Biasutti (Columbia University , New York, United States of America), M. Biasutti (Columbia University, Palisades, NY, United States of America)
  • External forcing and Sahelian African climate anomalies - A study from the WAMME project
    Y. Xue (Professor, UCLA, Los Angeles, United States of America), W. Lau, (2. University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, United States of America), A. Boone, (CNRM, Toulouse, France), S. I. Seidou (Centre Régional AGRHYMET/CILSS, Niamy, Niger, Republic of), W. Thiaw (5. National Centers for Environmental Prediction, College Park, United States of America), L. Druyan, (Goddard Institute for Space Studies/NASA and Columbia University, New York City,United States of America), D. Rowell (Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom)
  • Projected Climate Conditions over West Africa for the End of the 21st Century: Impact on Extreme Precipitation Events
    M. B. Sylla (WASCAL Competence Center, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso), D. Wisser (University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany), N. Elguindi (Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy), F. Giorgi (Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy)
  • Trends in West African floods: A comparative analysis with physiographic indices
    N. N. Bernadette (International Institute of Water and Environment Engineering, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso), H. Karambiri (2IE, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso), O. Ludovic (UPMC, Paris, France), P. Ribstein (Université Pierre et Marie Curie,Paris, France), J.-E. Paturel (IRD, Abdijan, Ivory Coast)
  • Temperature in the Sahel: mean climate and multidecadal warming in observations and climate simulations CMIP5F. Guichard (CNRM-GAME (UMR 3589, CNRS and Meteo-France), Toulouse, France), J. Barbier (CNRM-GAME (UMR 3589, CNRS and Meteo-France), Toulouse, France), C. Leauthaud (LSCE, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France), L. Kergoat (GET (UMR CNRS 5563), Toulouse, France), D. Bouniol (CNRM-GAME (UMR 3589, CNRS and Meteo-France), Toulouse, France), F. Couvreux (CNRM-GAME (UMR 3589, CNRS and Meteo-France), Toulouse, France), B. Diallo (LMD (IPSL, CNRS, UPMC), Paris,France), F. Hourdin (LMD (IPSL, CNRS, UPMC), Paris, France), S. Janicot (LOCEAN (CNRS, IPSL, IRD, UPMC), Paris, France), R. Roehrig (CNRM-GAME (UMR 3589, CNRS and Meteo-France), Toulouse, France)
  • Assessing climate impacts and adaptation options for cereal systems in West Africa
    D. Lobell (Stanford University, Stanford, United States of America), K. Guan (Stanford University, Stanford, United States of America), M. Biasutti (Columbia University , New York, United States of America), C. Baron (CIRAD, Montpellier, France), S. Benjamin (40 rue Joseph Gaillard, Vincennes, France)
  • The challenge of water resource management in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa
    H. Houghton-Carr (Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), Wallingford, United Kingdom), M. Fry (Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), Wallingford, United Kingdom)
  • Yield Gap and the shares of climate and crop management in yield and yield variability of staple crops in West Africa
    F. Affholder (CIRAD, Montpellier, France), B. Sultan (IRD, Paris, France), P. Kouakou (CIRAD, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso), C. Poeydebat (CIRAD, le Lamentin, France), B. Muller (CIRAD, Montpellier, France)
  • The re-greening Sahel: How green is green enough ?
    C. Dardel (LSCE/CESBIO, Toulouse, France), L. Kergoat (GET, Toulouse, France), P. Hiernaux (GET, Toulouse, France), M. Grippa (Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France), E. Mougin (GET, Toulouse, France)
  • The probable impacts of climate change on malaria and Rift Valley fever in Africa
    A. Morse (University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom), C. Caminade (University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom), A. Jones, (University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom), J. Leedale, (University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom), A. Tompkins, (ICTP, Trieste, Italy)
Poster presentations from Africa related to this session: (Abstract Book from page 598 onwards)

  • Wind erosion flux and dune front dynamic at the Sahara-Sahel border: case of Kilakina (SE Niger)
  • Precipitation and disturbance as main determinant of the spatial variability of carbon fluxes in 16 West African ecosystems Benin
  • Study of CLOUDSAT products in semi-arid region of Cameroon
  • Impacts of climate variability on crop yield: how do local farmers adapt in Nigeria?
  • Climate and climate variability: case study of the traditional lowland rice cultivation in the middle and upper Casamance Region, Senegal
  • Comparative study of five statistical methods of climate change analysis in the Niger River basin (West Africa) Benin, South Africa
  • Latitudinal ITCZ sensitivity to the width and depth of the convective activity in West African Monsoon
  • Climate change in a tropical region: the case of LAMTO reserve in Ivory Coast
  • Recent rainfall variability and vegetation activity in the experimental site of the Upper Ouémé basin (Benin)
  • Weather related income shocks and the child’s health in Burkina Faso
  • Rainfall in the Sahel and global temperature: lessons from a 1500-year long paleo-climate record Senegal
  • Assessing Impact of Climate Change on Vegetative Species Diversity Using the Normalised Difference Water Index: The Case of Mutirikwi Sub-catchment, Masvingo Zimbabwe
  • Responding to Climate Change Challenges in Sub Saharan Africa - A case for Water Supply, Nigeria
  • The impact of global changes on agriculture: the case of Ivorian Basin of Comoe River, Ivory Coast
  • Impacts of climate variability and agricultural intensification on the origin of runoff: the case study of the watershed Kolondieba in the south of Mali
  • Climate projections in West Africa: evidence and uncertainties? Senegal
  • Why is the « Sahelian paradox » recently exacerbated? Senegal
  • Impact of climate changes in the last thirty years on the second generation of Cocoa in Ivory Coast
  • Determination of malaria parameters using meteorological data sets of Senegal stations and reanalyses products Senegal
  • Climate variability and its role in accessibility to and use of water: social and health issues in informal settlements in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)
  • Rainy extreme events and phenomenon of flood in the city of Cotonou (Benin): Measure of protection and adaptation of the population
  • Diffusion and scaling of Soil and Water Conservation measures to manage Climate Change in Nigeria
  • Managing water and nitrogen fertilizers in maize production for smallholder farmers’ resilience to climate change impacts, Malawi
  • Managing water and nitrogen fertilizers in maize production for smallholder farmers’ resilience to climate change impacts Tchad
  • Trends of Heat Exposure in Northern Ghana
  • Development and Assessment of Non-Linear and Non-Stationary Seasonal Rainfall Forecast Models for the Sirba Watershed, West Africa, Burkina Faso
  • AMMA-CATCH a hydrological, meteorological and ecological long term observatory on West Africa Niger
  • Preparing for El Nino: a starting point for climate change adaptation for malaria Ethiopia
  • Policies to favour crop intensification and farm income under climatic risk in West Africa Senegal
  • A study of flood intensification in Niamey based on satellite, gauge data and hydrological modeling Niger
  • Towards innovative solutions for monitoring climate changes in observation poor regions : Rain Measurement based on cellular phone networks in Africa Burkina Faso
  • Less rain but more surface water: paradoxical evolution of ponds and runoff in pastoral Sahel
  • Temperature in the Sahel: mean climate and multidecadal warming in observations and climate simulations CMIP5
  • Characterization of seasons with the wind profiles observed by VHF radar in West Africa Benin
  • Description of the agro-climatological characteristics of the rainy season in southwestern Burkina Faso for the 1970-2013 period
  • Project ACASIS : A early warning system on Sahelian heat waves and their impacts on health
  • Estimation of the West African Monsoon variability through the analyses of the induced wave parameters Burkina Faso
  • Impact of climate variability on the water balance of the anthropized Agneby watershed in the southeast of Côte d’Ivoire: application of nTopAmma hydrological model Ivory Coast
  • Climate impact studies in the Sahel: A word of caution
  • Improving the incomes of producers on family farms in the context of climate change in Burkina Faso
  • Impact of climate on groundwater recharge in the crystalline basement rocks aquifer of Northern Ghana
  • From Artisans to Entrepreneurs: Understanding the role of small business for sustainable energy access South Africa
  • Recent climatological trend of the Saharan Heat Low and its impact in West Africa
  • Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns in Benin Republic between 2000 and 2050
  • Observed multidecadal changes in air tem - perature from 1950 to 2010 in the Sahel
  • Innovating low carbon waste management models in developing countries: a case of local community based artisanal entrepreneurship in Sub Saharan Africa countries.  Burkina Faso and Cameroon
  • Multi-Agent System for simulating the change pattern of agricultural land-use under changing climate in the semi-arid region of Ghana
  • A Bayesian Trend analysis of annual maximum stream flows of the Oti River Basin (West Africa) Benin
  • Impact of deforestation on surface water and energy feedbacks in sudanian region of West Africa Benin
  • Impact of Climate, Agriculture and Vegetation in the Sahel in the recent past : the CAVIARS Projet
  • Using longterm rainfall and streamflow trends to inform local level agricultural water management in Benin
  • Assessment of climate change impact on water resources in the Senegal river basin
  • The main projections of the West African monsoon : mean climate, seasonal cycle, extreme rainfall events
  • How farmers permanently adapt to climate evolution by testing new options and caring for food security: case of long-cycle sanyo millet comeback in Serer area in Senegal
  • Economic futures of African family farms in the face of climate change: addressing three big questions through integrated assessment with a Tanzanian case
  • Trends in daily extreme precipitation and temperature indices over Ghana from 1980 to 2011
  • Revivifying a 13th Century Craft to Enhance Community-based Adaptation through Ecosystems and Farm-lands Resilience enhancement in Uganda
  • Climate change and surface water resource mobilization for agricultural purposes in the okpara basin (west africa) Benin
  • Challenges of climate change in Southeastern, Nigeria: Sustainable containment measures
  • Use of the CORDEX simulations to with ORCHIDEE crop to assess the impact of +2/4 K climate change on crop yields in Subsaharan Africa
  • Observed long-term land cover vs climate impacts on the West African hydrological cycle: lessons for the future ?
  • Regional climate modelling of the West African Monsoon regime and its use for impacts and adaptation studies in Sahelian countries Niger
  • Defining genotypic adaptation targets via crop-climate modelling
  • Reconciling Past and Future Rainfall Trends over East Africa
  • Crop-Climate ensemble scenarios to reduce uncertainty in agroclimatic risks estimation under 2°C regional warming
  • An observatory for farmers adaptation to climate change in Thies district Senegal
  • Assessment of water availability and demand in lake Guiers, Senegal
  • A systemic approach to evaluate shea parklands as possible climate smart agriculture to be intensified in Sudanese Africa : the multidisciplinary RAMSES Project Benin, Burkina Faso
  • The ESCAPE project: an inter-disciplinary study on vulnerability, resilience and adap - tation of rural societies to environmental changes in Africa
  • The easterly water vapour transport from Indian monsoon and its role in the variabi - lity of west african monsoon Senegal
  • Impact of Climate Change on Freshwater availability for Senegal: Modeling Future Changes in Hydro-climatology of Lake of Guiers
  • Effect of seasonal variability on the incidence and transmission patterns of malaria in urban, peri-urban and rural communities around Kumasi, Ghana
  • Multi-decadal variability of Sahel Rain - fall and African Easterly Waves in CMIP5 Models: Mechanisms, Model Fidelity and Implications for Future Climate Change Projections
  • Recent trends in the regime of extreme rainfall in the Central Sahel
  • Climate Change and Agricultural Production: capitalisation of the farming techniques for the food security in Benin
  • Role of groundwater in buffering changes in climatic and anthropogenic conditions: experiences from Sub-Saharan Africa Uganda
  • Heat effects of ambient apparent tempe - rature on total non-accidental mortality in Cape Town, Durban and Johannesburg, South Africa: 2006-2010
  • Participatory approach for the integrated management of a wet ecosystem in a context of climate change: Inner Niger Delta (Mali)
  • Interaction between moist Kelvin waves and synoptic variability of precipitation over Congo basin Cameroon
  • Extreme condition and climate change in northern Africa during the last century Cameroon
How Might East African Landscapes Respond to Future Climate Change?
  • Understanding the past to develop a sustainable future: the value of the East African palaeoecological record R. Marchant (University of York, York, United Kingdom)
  • Landscape Resilience and Vulnerability in eastern Africa: an archaeological prospectus for the futureP. Lane (Archaeology & Ancient History, Uppsala, Sweden)
  • “Growing water” in Northern Kenya: Resilience of the Gabbra ecology and technology to adverse climate changeB. Hazard (Institut Interdisciplinaire d'anthropologie du contemporain, Paris, France)
  • Adopting landscape approach in enhancing resource governance, adaptation and resilience in arid and semi-arid lands of KenyaY. Salah (IUCN, Nairobi, Kenya)
  • The Rusizi plain,an area proneto the challenges of climate change and subject to political contraintsA. Cazenave- Piarrot (Université de Pau et des pays de l'Adour, Pau, France), C. Thibon (Université de Pau et pays de l'Adour, Pau, France), G. Joseph (Kigali Institute of Education, Kigali, Rwanda), G. Rwanyiziri (National University of Rwanda,Butare, Rwanda), S. Ndayirukiye (UNIVERSITE DU BURUNDI, BUJUMBURA, France)
  • Adapting to Climate- Bringing Back Traditional Grains to the Dinner tableJ. Gatune (African Centre for Economic Transformation (ACET), Accra, Ghana), D. Cohen, (Pardee RAND Graduates School, Santa Monica, United States of America)
Forest landscape management to create resilience in the face of climate change in West and Central Africa
Forest landscape management to create resilience in the face of climate change in West and Central Africa
  • Forest landscape management to create resilience in the face of climate change in West and Central AfricaL. Verchot (CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia), D. J. Sonwa (CIFOR (Center for International Forestry Research), Yaounde, Cameroon), K. Fernandes (Columbia University, Palisades, NY, United States of America), W. Baethgen, (Columbia University,Palisades, NY, United States of America), M. Pinedo-Vasquez, (CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia)
  • The Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel within the context of Climate ChangeM. Malagnoux (French Scientific Committee on Desertification, Allinges, France)
  • Adaptive capacity and tree-based livelihood diversification strategies of smallholders in Central Burkina Faso I. N. S. Djenontin (Center for International Forestry Research, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso), H. Djoudi (Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia), M. Zida (Center for International Forestry Research,Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso)
  • The Great Green Wall : a potential driver of transformation and increased resilience in Sahalian landscapesD. Goffner (CNRS, Marseille, France), A. Guissé (Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal), J.-L. Peiry (Blaise Pascal University, Clermont-Ferrand, France), P. Duboz (CNRS, Marseille, France), G. Boetsch (CNRS, Dakar, Senegal)
  • Implementing REDD+ and adaptation to climate change in the Congo Basin: Review of projects, initiatives and opportunities for synergiesA. M. Tiani (CIFOR, Yaounde, Cameroon), C. Pavageau, (CIFOR, Yaounde, Cameroon)

Food and water security under climate change
Food and water security under climate change
Climate change impacts on agriculture are partly mediated by changes in the global hydrological cycle. The extent and productivity of both irrigated and rainfed agriculture can be expected to change, with increased weather induced risks at both local and regional scales. As a result, the livelihoods of rural communities and the food security of a predominantly urban population are at risk from water-related impacts linked primarily to climate variability. The rural poor, who are the most vulnerable, are likely to be disproportionately affected. Adaptation measures that build upon improved land and water management practices will be fundamental in boosting overall resilience to climate change and in mitigating GHG emissions from agriculture.

Climate Smart Agriculture: Propaganda or Paradigm Shift?
  • From a global science conference towards UNFCCC negotiations: mobilizing science for transitionsP. Caron (Montpellier)
  • Keynote Speaker J.-F. Soussana (INRA, Paris, France)
  • Decision-support framework for targeting investment towards climate-smart agriculture practices and programs C. Corner-Dolloff, (International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia), A. M. Loboguerrero, (CGIAR research program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS) , Cali, Colombia), M. Lizarazo (CGIAR research program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS) , Cali, Colombia), A. Nowak (International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia), F. Howland (International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia), N. Andrieu (Centre de coopération Internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), Montpellier, France), A. Jarvis (International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia)
  • The adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture innovations: a summary of an EU projectV. Blok (Wageningen UR, Wageningen, Netherlands), T. Long (Wageningen UR, Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands)
Poster presentations from Africa related to this session: (Abstract Book page 336)
  • Trends and Spatial Analysis of Temperature and Rainfall Patterns on Rice Yields Nigeria
  • Climate Smart Adaptation on Lake Kariba: A Case Study of Siavonga District, Zambia
  • Tropical climate-smart soil conservation technologies for agro-ecosystem resilience Nigeria
  • Climate-smart agriculture and cocoa: engaging with farmers and their supply chains in Ghana
  • Exploring socio-economic and bio-physical indicators for trade-offs in Climate Smart Agriculture adoption: a case study from Tanzania and Uganda
  • The Dynamics of East African Climate and the Suitability of crop Mapping over the Mountainous Areas in a changing climate. Kenya
  • Private Sector Actions to Enable ClimateSmart Agriculture in Small-Scale Farming in East Africa. Kenya. This study demonstrates that social network analysis is an important tool for identifying which private sector actors can be strategically targeted for strengthening efforts to scale up climate-smart agriculture and where weaknesses in input and output supply chains exist.
8 July 2015. Paris, France. In association with the International Scientific Conference Our Common Future under Climate Change, the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) organized a side event on “Food and farming under climate change: moving towards a global agreement”
The discussion raised awareness of, and foster discussion about the role of smallholder farmers in climate change adaptation and mitigation in agriculture, particularly in relation to the upcoming UN Framework Convention on Climate Change conference of parties (COP21) in Paris in November. Panelists from a range of perspectives will present and respond to key issues and share experiences and solutions that are emerging from the frontlines of research and development on adaptation and mitigation. The audience will include COP21 negotiators, policy makers, development practitioners, and scientists.

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