Platform for African – European Partnership in Agricultural Research for Development

Wednesday, October 31, 2012

PAEPARD users' led process: Eastern Africa Livestock Strategy

In May 2012, the Eastern Africa Farmers Federation (EAFF) contracted the Agency for Inter-regional Development (AFID) to carry out a consultancy study to develop a Livestock Strategy for Eastern Africa. The focus of the strategy was given as “Extensive Livestock Systems” predominant in the dry areas of Eastern Africa. Major species involved were cattle, small ruminants (sheep and goat) and camels. Poultry and pig rearing in the target production systems which involve agro-pastoral and pastoral systems were also to be captured.

AFID experts supported by an adviser Dr. Jean Ndikumana who is an expert in livestock research and development in East and Central Africa with a particular focus on pastoral systems used the market driven value chain approach to identify constraints and opportunities along the major segments of the value chain i.e. production, processing and marketing and through consultations with representative of major actors of each segment, identified priority areas for investment taking into consideration the national, regional and international policy environment. The consultant firm was requested to focus its study on Kenya and Uganda to inform the strategy. 

Hereunder follows a video interview with Dr. Jean Ndikumana who explains the objectives of the study: EAFF - Post handling in the Extensive Livestock value chains in Eastern Africa with Specific Focus on Kenya and Uganda. 

He was interviewed during the EAC-Europe Food Security Thematic Policy Dialogue Workshop, 25th to 26th, October, 2012, Arusha, Tanzania.

He responds to following questions:
  • How important is it to identify gaps in research which benefits pastoralism?
  • How difficult is it to identify research gaps?
  • Do farmers or pastoralists have the capacity to translate a problem into a research question?
  • Was such consultation difficult?
  • Which gaps did you identify?
  • What is the way forward?
  • Which is the most important recommendation?
  • You recommend a multi sectorial approach?
The situation analysis revealed that livestock production and productivity in tha agro-pastoral and pastoral systems of Eastern Africa is constrained by a number of factors including effects of the climate change and climate variability which translate into frequent droughts and floods and bears heavily on pasture and water stress as well as on pests and diseases that compromise livestock production. 

Other constraints to livestock production in the target production systems include limited extension services, cattle rustling, limited access to financial services and insurance facilities, corroding of traditional institutions and coping mechanisms, and loss of common property resources. 

On the processing side, poor value addition practices and generalized lack of knowhow, inadequate infrastructures at slaughter houses with lack of minimum facilities such as drainage facilities and waste disposal and unhygienic practices except in towns, poor hygiene in handling meat and other livestock products such as inappropriate containers during products transport exposing them to hazardous contamination or inefficient institutions for enforcement of regulations are majorm characteristics of the processing segment of the value chain. Other important constraints include limited investment by the private sector in the area due to limited financial facilities and lack of incentives from governments.

Numerous constraints were identified refraining access to market and exploiting market opportunities in agro-pastoral and pastoral systems. These include poor infrastructures ( roads, holding grounds, water, dipping facilities, veterinary services), limited access to market information, high cost of inputs, multiple taxes, inappropriate tax incentives, poor handling and post harvest facilities, failure to comply with standards and sanitary regulations, loss of market value during droughts, inefficient institutions to enforce regulations (e.g. market distortions and low prices offers). 

The general principle of the users led brokerage procedure is giving the lead to “research users” partners (especially FO) in the organization of brokerage activities, in particular the organization of “brokerage workshops” around a federating theme that they have themselves chosen.

The objective of this approach is
  • reinforcing existing dynamics at national/regional level; 
  • Improving existing partnerships between FO, research and others stakeholders (improvements in terms of partnerships ‘design, of diversity of stakeholders involved, etc.); 
  • Deepen pending questions and potential solutions.
Following studies are currently in the pipeline:
  1. EAFF - Post handling of Extensive Livestock value chains in Eastern Africa with Specific Focus on Kenya and Uganda.
  2. PROPAC - Environmental impact of the value chain inclusive of gardening crops in urban areas"
  3. ROPPA - Climate change Adaptation technologies on rice production in Niger Guinea Conakry and Burkina Faso
  4. FANRPAN - Ground nut value chain in Zambia and Malawi
  5. COLEACP - Mango byproducts; Senegal, B. Faso, Ivory Coast
The studies include:
  • A Stakeholder Analysis
  • Current Research: What research is being done (which stakeholders, where, how, who financing, etc.) to better understand and/or resolve the constraints identified. Include relevant research being done by European Organisations - to the degree possible via internet search, etc.
  • The identification of key stakeholders (to invite to multi-stakeholder workshop to identify research questions; include African and European; research and non-research stakeholders)
Follow up: 
Induction workshop
National Agricultural Innovation Facilitators (NAIFs) will be inducted to PAEPARD and End Users Led process in a workshop (end of November 2012 tbc). The 3 day-workshop will be facilitated by the 2 PAEPARD regional facilitators, 2 European facilitators and the 2 co-managers. This workshop will lead to agreed objectives, outputs, programme of Multi-stakeholder R&D Question (MSRDQ) workshops and discussions on strategic objectives process and points to monitor.

Multi-stakeholder R&D Question (MSRDQ) workshops
The objectives of the MSRDQ are to: (i) validate federating theme; (ii) identify or refine R&D questions gaps; (iii) identify potential partnerships to address gaps; (iv) identify TOR for platform and core group to take platform forward.

5 MSRDQ workshops will be organized by EAFF, FANRPAN, PROPAC, ROPPA, COLEACP.

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